Zhejiang University (ZJU) is designated high risk for its moderately high number of defence laboratories, relationship with defence industry, and links to economic and cyber espionage.
ZJU is subordinate to the Ministry of Education and jointly constructed with defence industry agency SASTIND. This arrangement with SASTIND began in 2016 and is designed to deepend the university’s involvement in defence research.http://archive.is/m6qFX The university holds secret-level security credentials, allowing it to work on classified military projects.https://web.archive.org/web/20190721230536/http://www.zjmrhpt.com/service/qydetail?id=131
The university’s total research funding amounts to RMB4.56 billion (AUD940 million) in 2018.https://web.archive.org/web/20190722025919/http://www.zju.edu.cn/english/2018/0521/c19590a812438/page.htm It has at least three defence laboratories, with one source claiming that the university had ten key national laboratories (国家重点实验室) as of 2015.http://archive.fo/6rh9V ; https://web.archive.org/web/20191112104457/http://www.sohu.com/a/135944144_169472 These laboratories are involved in research on computer simulations, high-performance computing and control science. The university also carries out cyber security research and receives funding for this work from the MSS, China’s civilian intelligence agency.https://info.publicintelligence.net/USCC-ChinaCyberEspionage.pdf
ZJU cooperates extensively with international universities and companies, with upwards of 40 international joint S&T research labs.A list in English can be found here: https://web.archive.org/web/20190823014110/http://www.zju.edu.cn/english/19994/list.htm The College of Electrical Engineering has joint labs with U.S. companies in key industries, such as Rockwell Automation in the field of information technology, and the National Semiconductor Corporation. Additionally, the university has a joint research lab with U.S company Microsoft.https://web.archive.org/web/20190419115209/http://www.dcd.zju.edu.cn/78147a76/89c689c9611f77e5655980b290e8201420145fae8f6f91cd70b95b9e9a8c5ba4
Major defence laboratories
- MOE Key Laboratory of High-Performance Embedded Computing (教育部高性能嵌入式计算重点实验室（B类）)https://web.archive.org/web/20190721200049/http://www.zjuisee.zju.edu.cn/microelectronics/redir.php?catalog_id=11
- Also referred to as the Key Laboratory of High-Performance Embedded Computing (教育部国防高性能嵌入式计算重点实验室)https://web.archive.org/web/20190721232058/http://www.cbeis.zju.edu.cn/index.php/About/details.html?id=1
- MOE Key Laboratory of Aerospace Numerical Simulation and Verificationhttps://web.archive.org/web/20190722024237/http://esaa.zju.edu.cn/2018/1011/c21715a874546/page.htm(航空航天数值模拟与验证教育部重点实验室（B类）)https://web.archive.org/web/20190722031549/http://saa.zju.edu.cn/redir.php?catalog_id=37&object_id=17448
- Unspecified MOE Key Laboratory that is likely in the College of Control Science and Engineering (浙江大学控制科学与工程学院)https://web.archive.org/web/20190721232501/http://www.cse.zju.edu.cn/redir.php?catalog_id=1064114
Designated defence research areas
Mechanical manufacturing and its automation (also referred to as military industry manfucaturing and its automation) has been designated as a defence research area at ZJU.https://web.archive.org/web/20190815025831/http://mea.zju.edu.cn/index.php/about ; https://web.archive.org/web/20190815030216/http://me.zju.edu.cn/mecn/2017/0420/c6527a789863/page.htm However, the total number of areas is unknown.
Economic espionage and misconduct
A 2012 report prepared for the US–China Economic and Security Review Commission found that Zhejiang University received funding from the Ministry of State Security for information security research.https://info.publicintelligence.net/USCC-ChinaCyberEspionage.pdf
In 2013, U.S. officials in Milwaukee arrested a cancer researcher from China, Huajun Zhao, on charges of economic espionage. According to the FBI statement, Zhao may have used his position at Medical College of Wisconsin (MCOW) to illegally acquire patented research material and taken steps to provide that material to Zhejiang University.https://web.archive.org/web/20190722014433/https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/milwaukee/press-releases/2013/foreign-economic-espionage-investigation-leads-to-arrest
A 2013 Mandiant report described Zhejiang University’s School of Computer Science and Technology as a recruiting ground for Chinese military hacking group Unit 61398.https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf ; https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/02/20/someone-found-a-recruitment-notice-to-join-chinas-alleged-military-hacker-team/
Defence and security links
Zhejiang University is a participant in the Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance, the Artificial Intelligence Innovation Alliance, and the National Defense Technology Industry Nuclear Power Technology Innovation Center (国防科技工业核动力技术创新中心).https://web.archive.org/save/http://www.casa-china.cn/a/office/junminrongheweiyuanhui/junminrongheweiyua/2018/0417/504.html ; https://web.archive.org/web/20190722031304/https://www.leiphone.com/news/201707/3AYhtj013tujdEw6.html ; https://web.archive.org/web/20191112102128/http://www.cnnc.com.cn/cnnc/300555/300558/355067/index.html
Zhejiang University’s College of Electrical Engineering also has ties to the national defense industry and cooperates extensively with international entities.https://web.archive.org/web/20171101104445/http://ee.zju.edu.cn/english/redir.php?catalog_id=14175 The College currently cooperates with over 50 international institutions, such as the University of Virginia, the University of Wisconsin, Ohio University, Tokyo University, the University of Western Sydney, and others. Its National Engineering Centre for Small & Special Precision Motors – Zhejiang University Laboratory researches in areas of high-speed motors, ultrasonic motors, special motors for the aerospace and defense industry, among others.https://web.archive.org/web/20190722021955/http://ee.zju.edu.cn/english/redir.php?catalog_id=27326
The School of Aeronautics and Astronautics is home to the MOE Civil-Military Innovative Research Center for Micro-Satellite and Constellation, which aims to become a model for ‘civil-military integration and industrialization.’https://web.archive.org/web/20190722024607/http://esaa.zju.edu.cn/2018/1011/c21715a874498/page.htm
Last updated 18 November 2019. Unclear about any wording? Visit the terminology page.